Spanish American wars of independence and Latin American wars of independence The gradual decline of Spain as an imperial power throughout the 17th century was hastened by the War of the Spanish Succession —14as a result of which it lost its European imperial possessions.
Portugal and Brazil[ edit ] Brazil was the only country in Latin America to gain its independence without bloodshed.
The death knell for the Spanish Empire in the Americas was Napoleon's invasion of the Iberian peninsula in Imports of wheat from the United States, for example, increased over 32 fold between andand over the same period the price dropped by a half.
As it was mostly unoccupied by the Western powers as late as the s, Africa became the primary target of the "new" imperialist expansion known as the Scramble for Africaalthough conquest took place also in other areas — notably south-east Asia and the East Asian seaboard, where Japan joined the European powers' scramble for territory.
Some trends, including the ongoing impact of the French Revolution, ran through virtually the entire 19th century. Soon schools, stores, theaters, restaurants, bathrooms, and nearly every other part of public life were segregated.
Improved versions were used to stabilize automatic tracking mechanisms of telescopes and to control speed of ship propellers and rudders.
Finally, these economic developments coincided with dramatic changes in family life, particularly declining family size and increasing life expectancy. In the s, the transition from wrought iron puddling to mass-produced Bessemer steel greatly increased worker productivity.
Industrial capitalism was the most important factor that drew immigrants to the United States between and Another pioneer was John Bennet Lawes who began to experiment on the effects of various manures on plants growing in pots inleading to a manure formed by treating phosphates with sulphuric acid; this was to be the first product of the nascent artificial manure industry.
The new company emphasized rationalization of management structures and modernization of the technology; it employed a multi-divisional structure and used return on investment as its measure of success. His son, Dom Pedrowas left in charge of Brazil and in he declared independence from Portugal and himself the Emperor of Brazil.
Colonial India and Western imperialism in Asia Vasco da Gama 's maritime success to discover for Europeans a new sea route to India in paved the way for direct Indo-European commerce. Taiping Rebellion[ edit ] A scene of the Taiping Rebellion.
Machine tool A graphic representation of formulas for the pitches of threads of screw bolts. Contemporaries repeatedly expressed concern that the mills were making young women unfit in a variety of ways for what was expected of them as nineteenth-century women. The phonograph could create multiple copies of recordings, sparking a great expansion of the market for popular music.
Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries. Bythe profits of Carnegie Bros. Australia[ edit ] In Australia, the Minister for Public Works, Arthur Hill Griffithhad consistently advocated for the greater industrialization of Newcastlethen, under William Holmanpersonally negotiated the establishment of a steelworks with G.
Although independence was declared init was not until that it was formally recognized by King Charles X of France. Educated bureaucrats swelled the ranks of an emerging middle class.
Its main advantages were that it did not expose the steel to excessive nitrogen which would cause the steel to become brittleit was easier to control, and that it permitted the melting and refining of large amounts of scrap steel, lowering steel production costs and recycling an otherwise troublesome waste material.
Injournalist William Riordon published a book, Plunkitt of Tammany Hall, which chronicled the activities of ward heeler George Washington Plunkitt.
Edward Alfred Cowper developed the Cowper stove in Bythe Edison Vitascope could project film, shifting audiences away from arcades and pulling them into theaters.
And it was increasingly common. Some key elements in the growth of steel production included the easy availability of iron ore, and coal. From prehistory through the creation of the blast furnaceiron was produced from iron ore as wrought iron, Each wire carries current degrees apart in phase.
Perry threatened the Japanese capital Edo with gunships, demanding that they agree to open trade. Carnegie's empire grew to include the J. They sliced off pieces of his body as he screamed in agony. However, during recessions, demand fell sharply taking down output, prices, and profits.
European states were increasingly locked in diplomatic interaction, culminating in continentwide alliance systems after With large amounts of steel it became possible to build much more powerful guns and carriages, tanks, armored fighting vehicles and naval ships.
Pulling from contemporary developmental theory, they believed that young men ought to evolve as civilization evolved, advancing from primitive nature-dwelling to modern industrial enlightenment.
Cotton spinning and printing was the major part of the industry, but large numbers of both men and women were employed to work with wool, linen and flax, silk and lace, and as workers for the hosiery, glove-making and straw-plait trades.
After the Battle of Buxar inthe Company acquired the civil rights of administration in Bengal from the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II ; it marked the beginning of its formal rule, which was to engulf eventually most of India and extinguish the Moghul rule and dynasty itself in less than a century.
June Inter-War Period — [ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. It produced 3 million of steel in12 million in34 million in and 46 million in The Homestead Strike was a violent labor dispute in that ended in a battle between strikers and private security guards.
Although blacksmiths and harpooneers experimented with many different barbs, swivels, and toggles in designing harpoon heads, the standard, hand-darted harpoon in the second half of the nineteenth century was the toggle iron designed by an African-American in New Bedford, Lewis Temple.
period, encompassing most of the second half of the nineteenth century, has been called the Second Industrial Revolution or the American Industrial Revolution.
Over the first half of the century, the country expanded greatly, and the new territory was rich in natural resources. Completing the first.
Start studying HISTORY 2. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Great Britain began to lose its lead in the Industrial Revolution in the second half of the nineteenth century due to new industries being developed by other countries, industries such as.
The second industrial revolution craeted a. Besieged in the second half of the twentieth century by losses of population and economic ⇒ Read More Canals By providing a cheap and reliable mechanism for shipping goods, these complex technological systems funneled the products of broad hinterland regions to the Quaker City.
From the era of Reconstruction to the end of the 19th century, the United States underwent an economic transformation marked by the maturing of the industrial economy, the rapid expansion of big business, the development of large-scale agriculture, and the rise of national labor unions and industrial conflict.
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